Nephrons are the structural units of the kidney, and Nephrology is the study of internal organs that are concerned with the kidneys, functions of kidneys, and kidney diseases. Nephrology is the study of preserving kidney health and treating kidney diseases from diet and medication.
Who are Nephrologists, What Do They Treat?
Nephrologists are the person who specializes in the function and care of the kidneys. They diagnose, treat, and prevent conditions and all diseases related to the kidneys. Nephrologists are specialized professionals in treating people who have been diagnosed with kidney diseases. There are a variety of health issues related to kidney functions, and Nephrologists treat all these health issues such as:
- Treatment of renal diseases such as chronic nephritis and nephrosis syndrome by pathological examination (renal biopsy).
- Blood pressure and dietary management to prevent deterioration of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
- If unfortunately leads to end-stage renal failure, decide whether to perform hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or renal transplantation. After making both choices, introduce hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (related to renal transplantation).
- Management of dialysis therapy when a patient who was initially undergoing hemodialysis due to end-stage renal failure is hospitalized.
- Management of blood purification therapy performed in the intensive treatment room.
What are the functions of the kidney?
Eliminate waste products from your body!
The kidneys filter the blood and expel waste products and excess salt from the body as urine. It also reabsorbs what the body needs and keeps it in the body. If the kidneys do not work well, they will not produce urine, and waste products may accumulate in the body, resulting in uremia.
Regulate blood pressure!
The kidneys regulate blood pressure by controlling the excretion of salt and water. When blood pressure is high, it lowers blood pressure by increasing the amount of salt and water excreted, and when blood pressure is low, it raises blood pressure by decreasing the amount of salt and water excreted. The kidneys also secrete hormones that maintain blood pressure and increase it when low. The kidneys and blood pressure are closely related, and a decrease in kidney function can lead to high blood pressure. Hypertension can also strain the kidneys and worsen their function.
The commander who makes blood!
When the kidneys do not work well, this hormone does not come out, and blood may not be produced sufficiently, resulting in anemia.
Adjust body fluid volume and ion balance!
The kidneys also regulate the amount of fluid and ion balance in the body and take in the minerals that the body needs. The amount of fluid is not regulated when the kidneys get worse. Which leads to swelling of the body.
Types of kidney diseases
Primary kidney disease
Acute nephritic syndrome
Ten days to three weeks after suffering from tonsillitis or a cold, the patient suddenly develops hypertension, swelling, decreased urine output, and decreased renal function.
Rapidly progressive nephritis syndrome
Sudden hematuria and proteinuria appear, decreased renal function appears. The decrease in renal function is often accompanied by reduced urine volume and anemia, and renal dysfunction rapidly progresses after several weeks to several months.
Recurrent or persistent hematuria syndrome
Persistent hematuria and proteinuria are observed when there are symptoms, such as swelling, hypertension, or decreased renal function.
Chronic nephritis syndrome
Proteinuria and hematuria persist, and renal dysfunction (decrease) often progresses slowly with hypertension and swelling.
It is one of the three significant complications of diabetes and is on the rise. If the control of diabetes is poor, kidney damage (nephropathy) is inevitable, and renal function declines. In long-term diabetic conditions, persistent hyperglycemia damages microvessels in the kidneys. This injury first results in increased urinary protein excretion, which causes symptoms associated with hypertension, edema, and decreased renal function.
Collagen disease is an autoimmune disease that affects organs throughout the body and presents with various symptoms. These are the most common of these are systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus), a renal disorder.
Purpura is common in children and has fine subcutaneous bleeding mainly in the lower limbs, fever, urinary abnormalities, and gastrointestinal abnormalities.
In patients with gout (hyperuricemia), urate deposits in the kidneys, causing renal damage.
Other kidney diseases
It is a hereditary kidney disease that causes multiple cysts in the kidneys on both sides, compresses the renal parenchyma, and progressively reduces renal function, leading to end-stage renal failure.
Urinary tract infection
Urinary tract infection (urinary tract infection, UTI) is a common symptom of wanting to go to the toilet again, pain during urination, lower abdominal pain, fever, etc.
Kidney / urinary tract stones
Kidney and urinary stones are common kidney diseases. Stones often occur in the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Common kidney and urinary stones are severe and intolerable pain, nausea, vomiting, and hematuria.
Chronic kidney diseases
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which renal function is gradually lost and irreversible over several months to several years. With CKD, renal function declines slowly and continuously.